Technical Terms

Anisidine Value (AnV): The test is carried out by adding p-anisidine in acetic acid to the oil, then measuring the change in light absorbance at a particular wavelength (350 nm).

Bleaching: The colour components in the oil are absorbed by a finely weighed amount of diatomaceous earth, which is then added to the mixture. Because it’s a gentle process that doesn’t involve the use of chemical bleach, as is frequently stated! Metal ions, any residual chlorophyll, and other materials that might compromise the oil’s stability are all removed

Cold Test: This test checks if the oil remains transparent and bright when subjected to low temperatures.

Colour Index: The colour of the oil is assessed using a yellow/red scale created especially for oils and fats by the American Oil Chemists Society. The measurement is done on a special color comparison machine (Lovibond). Another common method to measure color is the Gardner color scale, which is widely used in the industry.

Degumming: The solvent (water) is then drained off, together with any chlorophyll and disordering metal ions, by washing the oil with high-purity water and food-grade phosphoric acid.

Deodorizing: When the oil is heated under extreme vacuum, its rich flavor and fragrance are eliminated. The volatile components, including the majority of oxidation by-products, are driven away, leaving the oil virtually odorless.

Fatty Acid Composition: On a capillary column in a gas chromatograph, the oil is separated into its component fatty acids, and the proportion of each is determined. It’s worth noting that because of their smaller size, fatty acid quantities are traditionally expressed as percentages of all fatty acids. The oil will also include various components such as the glycerol backbone from the

Filtering: Due to the presence of seed pieces in cold press oil, it is often murky. Filtration is used to remove these fragments, leaving a clear, brilliant oil.

Heavy Metals: The presence of hazardous materials like lead, mercury, and cadmium must also be investigated. Iodine Value: The degree of unsaturation in the oil is measured using this method. Despite being superseded by the fatty acid profile, the iodine value is still employed on occasion (particularly by skincare formulators).

Neutralization: The oil is acidified with an alkali solution, which removes any free fatty acids and lecithin and phospholipids.

Organoleptic Testing: The various components of Cannabis sativa that make it an excellent candidate for a wide range of end-uses include terpenes and cannabinoids, both of which are enhanced through the process of distillation. This is a fancy term for taste and fragrance, which are obviously crucial in many situations.

Acid Value (AV): By calculating the amount of alkali needed to neutralize a sample of oil, the degree to which the triglycerides in the oil have broken down to release free fatty acids is measured.

Peroxide Value (PV): Titration with a potassium iodide solution is used to determine the amount of PV in a sample.

Saponification Value: The amount of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize all the fatty acid molecules (both free and in triglycerides) in 1g of oil is expressed as a percentage. It’s an indication of the average molecular weight of the fatty acids in the oil.

Unsaponifiable Matter (USM): The proportion of the oil that isn’t present in the form of triglycerides or fatty acids is measured. Sterols, tocopherols, carotinoids, and pigments are all examples of this.

Winterization: Seed oils naturally contain waxes and gums in varying amounts. These chemicals can cause oil to cloud or aggregate over time, which is bad. Winterization consists of keeping the oil at a low temperature for a period of time to allow these components to crystallize and be removed by a last filtering.